Conversion of different types of biomass into bioenergy is usually performed using thermo-chemical conversions such as combustion, gasification, or pyrolysis.
The most well established and commonly used method is direct combustion to generate heat which can be used for generating electricity or for direct heating.
- Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of a material in the absence of oxygen. This is a widely used process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bio-oil which is further processed into biofuels.
- Gasification is used to produce a syngas that can be further processed into liquid transportation fuels or other products.
Due to the complex chemical composition of different types of biomass (feedstock), the flue gas in combination with high temperatures will create harsh conditions for the materials used for the construction of boilers and production equipment.
For example, chloride or sulfur-based corrosion issues are known to arise when using biomass feedstocks compared to the combustion of coal.