Sandvik 3R60™ is an austenitic chromium-nickel steel with minimum 2.5% molybdenum and a low carbon content.
Sandvik 3R60™ is also available in a variant for the urea industry, Sandvik 3R60™ Urea Grade.
ASTM: TP316L, TP316
UNS: S31603, S31600
EN Number: 1.4435, 1.4436
EN Name: X 2 CrNiMo 18-14-3, X 3 CrNiMo 17-13-3
W.Nr.: 1.4435, 1.4436
DIN: X 2 CrNiMo 18 14 3, X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3
SS: 2353, 2343
AFNOR: Z 2 CND 17.13
JIS: SU316LTP, 316TP, SU316LTB, 316TB
- ASTM A213, A269 and A312
- JIS G3459
- JIS G3463
- EN 10216-5
- BS 3605, 3606
- DIN 17456, 17458
- NFA 49-117*, 49-217*
* Mo content 2.00-2.40%
Chemical composition (nominal)
Sandvik 3R60™ is used for a wide range of industrial applications where steels of type ASTM 304 and 304L have insufficient corrosion resistance. Typical examples are: heat exchangers, condensers, pipelines, cooling and heating coils in the chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper and food industries.
Sandvik 3R60™ has good resistance in:
- Organic acids at high concentrations and moderate temperatures
- Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric and sulfuric acids, at moderate concentrations and temperatures. The steel can also be used in sulfuric acid of concentrations above 90% at low temperature.
- Salt solutions, e.g. sulfates, sulfides and sulfites
- Caustic environments
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F) if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. Such service conditions should therefore be avoided. Conditions when plants are shut down must also be considered, as the condensates which are then formed can develop conditions that lead to both stress corrosion cracking and pitting.
In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, austenitic-ferritic steels, such as Sandvik SAF 2304® or SAF 2205™ are recommended. See data sheets S-1871-ENG and S-1874-ENG.
Sandvik 3R60™ has a low carbon content and therefore better resistance to intergranular corrosion than steels of type AISI 316. The TTC-diagram, Figure 1, shows the result of corrosion testing for 24 hours in boiling Strauss solution (12% sulfuric acid, 6% copper sulphate). The resistance to grain boundary attack is much better for AISI 316L than for AISI 316. This is an advantage in complicated welding operations.
Pitting and crevice corrosion
Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with increasing molybdenum content. Sandvik 3R60™, containing about 2.6% Mo, has substantially higher resistance to attack than these steels of type AISI 304 and also better resistance than ordinary AISI 316/316L steels with 2.1% Mo.
Sandvik 3R60™ can be uses in
- Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range.
In flue gases containing sulfur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments the steel can be used at temperatures up to 600-750 °C (1100-1380 °F) depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.
Annealing after cold bending is not normally necessary, but this point must be decided with regard to the degree of bending and the operating conditions. Heat treatment, if any, should take the form of stress relieving or solution annealing, see under Heat treatment.
Hot bending is carried out at 1100-850°C (2010-1560°F) and should be followed by solution annealing.
Forms of supply
Seamless tube and pipe- Finishes and dimensions
Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik 3R60™ is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter in the solution annealed and white-pickled condition or solution annealed in a bright-annealing process.
Other forms of supply
We can also deliver other product forms from stock in a grade corresponding to ASTM 316L mainly:
- Welded tube and pipe
- Fittings and flanges
- Bar steel
Sizes in stock
Seamless tube is stocked in a wide range of sizes according to ISO. Heat exchanger and instrumentation tubes are also stocked in BWG-and SWG-sizes. Hollow bar is stocked in a large number of sizes as SANMAC 316L (see data sheet S-1840-ENG). Details of our manufacturing programme are given in catalogue S-110-ENG.
Tubes are delivered in heat treated condition. If additional heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended.
850-950°C (1560-1740°F), cooling in air
1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), followed by rapid cooling in air or water.
For tube and pipe with wall thickness greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by about 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
c) NFA 49-117, 49-217 with min 45% can be fulfilled on request.
Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sandvik 3R60 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.
Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) ( (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -270 oC (-455 oF) and EN 10216-5 (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF).
At high temperatures
|Temperature||10 000 h||100 000 h|
Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
|Temperature, °C||W/m °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/ft h °F|
|Temperature, °C||J/kg °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/lb °F|
|Temperature, °C||Per °C||Temperature, °F||Per °F|
1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
|Temperature, °C||MPa||Temperature, °F||ksi|
The weldability of Sandvik 3R60™ is good. Welding must be carried out without preheating and subsequent heat treatment is normally not required. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
For Sandvik 3R60™, heat input of <2.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.
Recommended filler metals
TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding
ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L)
ISO 3581 E 19 12 3 L R / AWS A5.4 E316L-17(e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.LR)
ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L) wire or strip electrodes are recommended for overlay welding of tube sheets and high-pressure vessels in cases where corrosion resistance, equal to that of Sandvik 3R60TM, is required.