Sandvik 1C356 is a ferritic, heat resisting, chromium steel, characterized by:
- Very good resistance to reducing sulphurous gases
- Good resistance to oxidation in air
- Good resistance to oxidizing salts
The grade can be used at temperatures up to 1000°C (1830°F). However, allowance should be made for the low creep strength at the highest temperatures in order to avoid distortion due to the inherent mass of the steel.
- SEW 470
- EN 10095**
* Obsolete. Replaced by EN.
** Heat resisting steels and nickel alloys. Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate, strip, bars, rods and sections.
Chemical composition (nominal)
Sandvik 1C356 should be chosen mainly for service in slightly sulphidizing gases where austenitic stainless steel with low contents of alloying elements may suffer corrosion. Typical applications for Sandvik 1C356 are:
- Recuperators in the metallurgical and allied industries
- Thermocouple protection tubes
- Injection nozzles
Sandvik 1C356 is highly resistant to oxidation, both at constant and at cyclically varying temperatures. The service temperature in air should not exceed about 1000°C (1830°F).
Isothermal oxidation at 1000°C (1830°F) results in a metal loss of about 10µm/1000h.
Hot corrosion / sulphidation
Owing to its combined aluminium, silicon and chromium content and the absence of nickel, Sandvik 1C356 has very good resistance in sulphidising gases and salts.
Sandvik 1C356 tubes can be bent hot or cold. Annealing is not normally necessary after cold bending.
Hot-worked tubes should preferably be bent hot, but they can be bent cold, if the bending radii is greater than 5 times the diameter.
Hot bending is carried out at 900–800°C (1650–1470°F), followed by subsequent cooling in air.
Forms of supply
Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik 1C356 is supplied in dimensions up to 120 mm (4.72 in.) outside diameter in the annealed condition, but are also available white-pickled after annealing.
Tubes are delivered in the heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended:
800–850°C (1470–1560°F) 10-30 minutes, rapid cooling in air.
800–860°C (1470–1580°F), 5-60 minutes, rapid cooling in air.
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
2) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0, where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
3) Hot finished products do not generally fulfill the min Rm requirement (500 MPa, 73 ksi) according to SEW 470.
Creep strength (approx. values)
|Temperature||Creep rupture strength, MPa|
|oC||10 000 h||100 000 h|
|Temperature,||Creep rupture strength, ksi|
|oF||10 000 h||100 000 h|
Since Sandvik 1C356 has very large creep-rupture elongation, often more than 100%, and little resistance to creep, it is necessary to allow for considerable creep deformation long before rupture occurs. At normal service temperatures, i.e. over 700°C (1290°F), even the mass of the tubes can cause stresses leading to extensive deformations.
Careful attention must, therefore, be given to the way in which the tubes are supported. Sandvik 1C356, in common with other ferritic chromium steels, is less tough than austenitic stainless steels in the as-delivered condition.
Density: 7.7 g/cm3, 0.28 lb/in3
|Temperature, °C||W/m °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/ft h °F|
|Temperature, °C||J/kg °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/lb °F|
|Temperature, °C||Per °C||Temperature, °F||Per °F|
1) Mean values in temperature ranges x10-6
|Temperature, °C||MPa||Temperature, °F||ksi|
1) x 103
|Temperature, °C||μΩm||Temperature, °F||μΩin.|
Temperatures of about 400–550°C (750–1020°F) should be avoided for even short periods of time, whether the steel is in service or merely being held at that temperature, since severe embrittlement, known as 475 deg. embrittlement, can take place. This is noticeable after the tubes have cooled to room temperature. However, the steel can be restored to its original condition by short term heating at a temperature above 600°C (1110°F).
Embrittlement can also occur as a result of sigma phase formation after prolonged service at 550-750°C (1020-1380°F), but it is less pronounced compared with 24–27 % chromium steels such as ASTM TP 446-1 (EN no. 1.4749), and high chromium-aluminium steels, such as EN no. 1.4762. The sigma phase can be redissolved after heat treatment above 900°C (1650°F).
The weldability of Sandvik 1C356 is good. Welding must be carried out with preheating at 200-300°C (390-570°F), subsequent heat treatment is not required where Sandvik 1C356 is used in structures that operate for prolonged periods at high temperature. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
For Sandvik 1C356, heat-input of <1.5 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.
Recommended filler metals
- ISO 14343 S 29 9/AWS A5.9 ER312 (e.g. Exaton 29.9) or
- ISO 14343 S 25 20/AWS A5.9 ER310 (e.g. Exaton 25.20.C) or
- ISO 18274 S Ni 6082/AWS A5.14 ERNiCr-3 (e.g. Exaton Ni72HP)
- ISO 3581 E 29 9 R/AWS A5.4 E312-16 (e.g. Exaton 29.9.R) or
- ISO 3581 E 25 20 B/AWS A5.4 E310-16 (e.g. Exaton 25.20.B) or
- ISO 14172 E Ni 6182/AWS A5.11 ENiCrFe-3 (e.g. Exaton Ni71)
When using the austenitic stainless-steel wire electrode S 25 20/ER310 and the covered electrode E 25 20 B/E310-16, the higher thermal expansion of the austenitic weld metal must be considered.
When using nickel alloy wire electrode S Ni 6082/ERNiCr-3 and covered electrode E Ni 6182/ENiCrFe-3, however, allowance must be made for lower corrosion resistance of the Sandvik 1C356 welded joint in a reducing sulphurous atmosphere.