Sanmac® 4571, 1.4571/316Ti, is a titanium-stabilized, molybdenum-alloyed austenitic chromium-nickel steel with improved machinability.
- X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2
- EN 10088-3
- ASTM A-314
Suitable for the production of flanges etc. according to AD-2000-W2.
Status according to EN 10 204/3.1
Chemical composition (nominal) %
Forms of supply
Sizes and tolerances
Round-cornered square as well as round billets are produced in a wide range of sizes according to the following tables. Larger sizes offered on request.
Unground, spot ground or fully ground condition.
Peel turned or black condition.
|80||+/-2||4 - 6.3|
|100, 114, 126, 140, 150||+/-3||4 - 6.3|
|160, 180, 195, 200||+/-4||4 - 6.3|
|>200 - 350||+/-5||3 - 5.3|
Sizes and tolerances apply to the rolled/forged condition.
|75 - 200 (5 mm interval)||+/-1||max 10|
|>200 - 450||+/-3||3 - 8|
|77 - 112 (5 mm interval)||+/-2||max 10|
|124, 134||+/-2||max 10|
|127, 147, 157||+/-2||max 10|
|142, 152, 163||+/-2||max 10|
|168, 178, 188||+/-2||max 10|
|183, 193||+/-2||max 10|
- Welding wire
- Covered electrodes
- Seamless tube and pipe (Sanmac®)
- Hollow bar (Sanmac®)
Testing is performed on separately solution annealed and quenched test pieces. The following figures apply to material in the solution annealed and quenched condition.
At 20°C (68°F)
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sanmac® 4571 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.
Tests on bar have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements (60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF)), according to the European standards EN13445-2(UFPV-2) and EN 10272.
At high temperatures
Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
Sanmac® 4571 has good resistance in:
- Organic acids at high concentrations and temperatures
- Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric and sulphuric acids, at moderate concentrations and temperatures. The steel can also be used in sulphuric acid with concentrations above 90% at low temperature.
- Salt solutions, e.g. sulphates, sulphides and sulphites
- Austic environments
Sanmac® 4571 has better resistance to intergranular corrosion than unstabilized steels. The addition of titanium prevents precipitation of chromium carbides in the grain boundaries after prolonged heating in the temperature range 450- 850°C (840-1560°F).
Pitting and crevice corrosion
Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with an increasing molybdenum content and Sanmac® 4571, with about 2.1% Mo, has substantially higher resistance than steels of type AISI 304/304L.
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F), if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. Such service conditions should, therefore, be avoided. Conditions when plants are shut down must also be considered, as the condensates, which are then formed, can develop a chloride content that leads to both stress corrosion cracking and pitting.
In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, austenitic- ferritic steels, e.g. Sandvik SAF 2304®, SAF 2205™ or SAF 2507®, are recommended. See data sheets S-1871-ENG, S-1874-ENG and S-1875-ENG.
Sanmac® 4571 can be used in:
- Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range. In flue gases containing sulphur, corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments, these steels can be used at temperatures up to 600-750°C (1110-1380°F), depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities, such as sodium and vanadium, are present.
A suitable hot working temperature is 1220-1260oC (2230-2300oF). The temperature used should not decrease below 900oC (1650oF).
Hot working of Sanmac® 4571 should be followed by rapid cooling in water or in air. If any additional heat treatment is used, this should be carried out in accordance with the recommendations given for heat treatment.
Sanmac® 4571 billets are delivered in the hot worked condition and not solution annealed.
Any heat treatment after further processing should be performed according to the following recommendation.
Material temperature 1060-1070oC (1940-1960oF), rapid cooling in air or water.
Suitable welding methods for Sanmac® 4571 are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes and gas shielded arc welding, with the TIG and MIG methods as first choice. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are not normally necessary.
Due to the fact that this material is alloyed for improved machinability, there can be higher amounts of surface oxide on the weld bead, compared to standard W.Nr. 1.4571 steels. This may lead to arc instability during TIG welding. Correct setting of the weld current is important.
Since this material has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion, welding must be carried out with a low heat input and with welding plans well thought out in advance, so that the deformation of the welded joint can be kept under control. If, despite these precautions, it is foreseen that the residual stresses might impair the function of the weldment, we recommend that the entire structure is stress relieved. See under "Heat treatment".
As filler material for gas shielded arc welding, we recommend, Sandvik 19.12.3.L or 19.12.3.LSi wire electrodes and rods. In manual metal-arc welding, the covered electrodes Sandvik 19.12.3.LR, 19.12.3.LB or 19.12.3.LRHD are recommended. For technical information on filler metals, please refer to brochures S-236-ENG.
Sanmac® stands for Sandvik Machinability Concept. In Sanmac® materials, machinability has been improved without jeopardizing properties, such as corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.
Improved machinability is brought about by:
- Optimized non-metallic inclusions
- Optimum chemical composition
- Optimized process and production parameters
Detailed recommendations for the choice of tools and cutting data, for turning, thread cutting, parting/grooving, drilling, milling and sawing, are provided in the brochure S-029-ENG.
The diagram shows the ranges, within which data should be chosen in order to obtain a tool life of 10 minutes minimum, when machining the austenitic Sanmac® 4571. The ranges are limited in the event of low feeds, because of unacceptable chip breaking. In the case of high cutting speeds, plastic deformation is the most dominant cause of failure. When feed increases and the cutting speed falls, edge frittering (chipping) increases significantly. The diagram is applicable for short cutting times. For long, continuous cuts, cutting speeds should be reduced.
Figure 1. Machining chart for Sanmac® 4541.
The lowest recommended cutting speed is determined by the tendency of the material to stick to the insert (built-up edge), although the integrity of insert clamping and the stability of the machine are also of great significance.
It is important to conclude, which wear mechanism is active, in order to optimize cutting data with the aid of the diagram.
Turning Sanmac® 4571
Recommended insert and cutting data (starting values)
|Insert Geometry||Grade||Cutting data Feed||Cutting speed||
Finishing, copy turning
Medium-to-rough machining under less stable conditions
Drilling Sanmac® 4571
The recommended methods for drilling give the most cost effective results for the respective diameter ranges. When producing holes with diameters larger than 58 mm, short hole drilling is used up to 58 mm, followed by internal turning, up to the desired diameter. Cutting data for internal turning should be chosen in accordance with the turning recommendations. The recommendations for drilling are applicable for a tool life of 30 minutes.
Short hole drilling, diameter 12.7 - 58 mm
Coromant U-drill, R416.2
|Insert Geometry||Grade||Cutting data, Feed||Cutting speed|
|-53||Central insert GC1020||-||-|
|-53||Peripheral insert GC1020*||0.04-0.18||150|
|-53||Peripheral insert GFC3040**||0.04-0.18||200|
* GC1120 for diameters below 17.5 mm
** stable conditions, otherwise use GC1020 and cutting speed 180 m/min
Drilling with Sandvik Coromant Delta C drill, diameter 3 - 12.7 mm
Code R415.5. Grade GC1220
(diameter range 3 - 20 mm)
|Cutting data, Feed*||Cutting speed|
* The lower feed value should be selected for smaller diameters.
Drilling with high speed steel (HSS) drill
(diameter 1-3 mm)
|Cutting data, Feed*||Cutting speed**|
* The lower feed value should be selected for smaller diameters
** The higher cutting speed should be selected for coated drills
Milling Sanmac® 4571
Use of optimum cutting data means that milling can be carried out at cutting speeds above those where there is a risk of built-up edge formation. Dry milling results in long tool life. If coolant is needed (e.g. when the surface cannot be reached in the dry condition), the cutting speed must be reduced by approximately 40-60% to prevent tool wear due to increased thermal load on the inserts.
|Roughing Geometry/Grade||Cutting speed||Finishing Geometry/Grade||Cutting speed|
1) Starting values for dry machining
Threading Sanmac® 4571
Indexable inserts can be used for external thread cutting of all diameters. Threading with screw-cutting dies or die heads is economical only for small diameters. For internal threading with short and normal cutting lengths, thread cutting with indexable inserts is recommended above a hole diameter of 12 mm. For long cutting lengths, thread cutting with indexable inserts is recommended for hole diameters above 20 mm.
Due to the tendency of austenitic materials to work harden, radial infeed is recommended. A generous flow of cutting fluid should also be used, partly to obtain a reliable process and partly to guide the chip. The recommendations apply to a tool life of 30 minutes.
|Insert Geometry||Grade||Cutting speed|
Compared with uncoated threading taps, coated threading taps can improve productivity by up to 100%. For the advantages of coated threading taps to be realized, a generous flow of cooling fluid must be used. The recommendations apply to a tool life of 30 minutes.
The higher range of cutting data should be chosen for coated threading taps
Sawing Sanmac® 4571
Cutting with bandsaws or cold saws gives the best cutting economy. If the demand for surface smoothness is great, circular sawing is preferable.
Band sawing gives high productivity, is flexible and incurs low investment costs.
When band sawing Sanmac® 4571, the Sandflex Cobra type 3851 bimetallic bandsaw blades, which is available from Bahco Group (formerly Sandvik Saws and Tools), is recommended.
Tooth spacing should be selected according to the dimensions of the material to be cut, and stated in TPI (the number of teeth per in.). The TPI should be reduced for thicker dimensions. For a bar dimension of D = 150 mm, 2/3 TPI or 1/2 TPI is recommended.
Feed is regulated to obtain a good chip form.
Sanmac® 4571 is used for a wide range of industrial applications, where steels of type AISI 304/304L have insufficient corrosion resistance.
|Industrial categories||Typical applications|
|Pulp and paper industry||Couplings|
|Bolts and nuts|