Sanmac® 316/316L is a molybdenum-alloyed austenitic chromium-nickel steel with improved machinability.
ASTM: MT 316, MT 316L
UNS: S31600, S31603
EN Number: 1.4401, 1.4404
EN Name: X 5 CrNiMo 17-12-2, X 2 CrNiMo 17-12-2
- EN 10216-5*, EN 10297-2, EN 10294-2
- ASTM A511
- JIS G3446
* The leakage test is deferred to the finished component
JIS Approval No. SE9402 for Stainless Steel Tubes
Chemical composition (nominal) %
Sanmac® 316/316L is used for a wide range of industrial applications where steels of type ASTM 304/304L have insufficient corrosion resistance. Typical applications are:
- Machined parts for tube and pipe fittings
- Components for valves, pumps, heat exchangers and vessels
- Different tubular shafts in chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper and power industries as well as in the production of pharmaceuticals, foods and beverages
Sandvik Sanmac® 316/316L has good resistance to:
- Organic acids at high concentrations and temperatures, with the exception of formic acid and acids with corrosive contaminants
- Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric acid, at moderate concentrations and temperatures, and sulfuric acid below 20% at moderate temperatures.
The steel can also be used in sulfuric acid of concentrations above 90% at low temperature.
- E.g. sulfates, sulfides and sulfites
- Caustic environments
Sandvik Sanmac® 316/316L has a low carbon content and therefore good resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F) if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, the austenitic-ferritic steels Sandvik SAF 2304, Sandvik 10RE51 or Sandvik Sanmac® 2205 have higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than 316L.
Pitting and crevice corrosion
Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with increasing molybdenum content. Thus, the molybdenum-alloyed Sandvik Sanmac® 316/316L has substantially higher resistance to attack than steels of type AISI 304 and 304L.
Sandvik Sanmac® 316/316L can be used in:
- Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range. In flue gases containing sulfur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments the steel can be used at temperatures up to 600-750°C (1110-1380°F) depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.
Forms of supply
Hollow bar-Finishes, dimensions and tolerances
Hollow bar Sanmac® 316/316L is stocked in a large number of sizes up to 250 mm outside diameter in the solution-annealed and white-pickled condition.
See catalogue S-110-ENG or S-1492-ENG.
Dimensions are given as outside and inside diameter with guaranteed component sizes after machining.
Outside diameter +2 / -0 %, but minimum +1 / -0 mm
Inside diameter +0 / -2 %, but minimum +0 / -1 mm
Other tolerances can be supplied against special order.
Other forms of supply
Steel with improved machinability, Sanmac, is also available in bar.
Hollow bar is delivered in heat treated condition. If further heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended:
850-950°C (1560-1740°F), cooling in air.
1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), rapid cooling in air or water.
For hollow bar with wall thicknesses greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by about 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).
At 20°C (68°F)
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1 MPa = 1N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 ÖS0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
c)NFA 49-317 with min 45% can be fulfilled
Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sandvik Sanmac® 316/316L has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.
Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements (60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF)) according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) and EN 10216-5.
At high temperatures
Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
|Temperature, °C||W/m °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/ft h °F|
|Temperature, °C||J/kg °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/lb °F|
|Temperature, °C||Per °C||Temperature, °F||Per °F|
|Temperature, °C||MPa||Temperature, °F||ksi|
The weldability of SANMAC® 316/316L is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
Since this material is alloyed in such a way to improve its machinability, the amount of surface oxides on the welded beads might be higher compared to that of the standard 316L steels. This may lead to arc instability during TIG/GTAW welding, especially welding without filer material. However, the welding behavior of this material is the same as for standard 316L steels when welding with filler material.
For SANMAC® 316/316L, heat input of <2.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are normally not necessary.
Recommended filler metals
TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding
ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L)
ISO 3581 E 19 12 3 L R / AWS A5.4 E316L-17(e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.LR)
Sanmac® stands for Sandvik Machinability Concept. In Sanmac® materials, machinability has been improved without jeopardizing properties such as corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.
The improved machinability is owing to:
- Optimized non-metallic inclusions
- Optimal chemical composition
- Optimized process and production parameters
Detailed recommendations for the choice of tools and cutting data regarding turning, thread cutting, parting/grooving, drilling, milling and sawing are provided in the brochure S-02909-ENG.
The diagram shows the ranges within which data should be chosen in order to obtain a tool life of minimum 10 minutes when machining austenitic Sanmac® 316/316L.
The ranges are limited in the event of low feeds because of unacceptable chip breaking. In the case of high cutting speeds, plastic deformation is the most dominant cause of failure. When feed increases and the cutting speed falls, edge frittering (chipping) increases significantly. The diagram is applicable for short cutting times. For long, continuous cuts, the cutting speeds should be reduced somewhat.
The lowest recommended cutting speed is determined by the tendency of the material to stick to the insert (built-up-edge), although the integrity of insert clamping and the stability of the machine are also of great significance.
It is important to conclude which wear mechanism is active, in order to optimize cutting data with the aid of the diagram.