Sandvik 8R40 is an austenitic, niobium-stabilized stainless chromium-nickel steel for use at temperatures up to 850°C (1560°F).
- TP347, TP347H
- S34700, S34709
- 1.4550, 1.4912
- X6CrNiNb18-10, X7CrNiNb18-10
- X 6 CrNiNb 18 10
- (Z6CNNb 18.10)
- 347S31, 347S51
Seamless tube and pipe:
- ASTM A213, A269, A312, A376
- EN 10216-5
- BS 3059 Part 2, BS 3605 Part 1, BS 3606
- DIN 17456,17458
- SS 14 23 38
Chemical composition (nominal)
Sandvik 8R40 is used for super heater-tubes in steam power plants.
It is also frequently used for cooling tubes in ammonia converters, because of its good resistance to nitrogen absorption and good corrosion resistance.
With its good hot-strength, and good resistance to hydrogen sulphide and intergranular corrosion, Sandvik 8R40 is a suitable material for furnace tubes in refineries. Furnace tubing used in vinyl chloride production is another example of applications in which this steel is often used.
Sandvik 8R40 has with some limitations (nitric acid) the same resistance as the unstabilized steel ASTM 304, i.e. the material has good resistance in:
- Organic acids at moderate temperatures
- Salt solutions, e.g. sulphates, sulphides and sulphites
- Caustic environments at moderate temperatures
Sandvik 8R40 is generally used at temperatures above 500 °C (930 °F), however, where wet corrosion is not relevant.
The stabilization with niobium gives Sandvik 8R40 good resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Pitting and crevice corrosion
The steel may be sensitive to pitting and crevice corrosion even in solutions of relatively low chloride content.
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F), if the steel is subject to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. Such service conditions should therefore be avoided. Conditions when plants are shut down must also be considered as the condensates which are then formed can develop a chloride content that leads to both stress corrosion cracking and pitting.
Sandvik 8R40 can be used in
- Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
- Synthesis gas (ammonia synthesis) up to about 550°C (1020°F)
Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range.
In flue gases containing sulphur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments this steel can be used at temperatures up to 600-750°C (1110-1380°F) depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.
Annealing after cold bending is not normally necessary, but this point must be decided with regard to the degree of bending and the operating conditions. Heat treatment, if any, should take the form of stress-relieving or solution annealing, see under "Heat treatment".
Hot bending is carried out at 1100-850°C (2010-1560°F) and should be followed by solution annealing.
Forms of supply
Seamless tube and pipe - Finishes and dimensions
Seamless tube and pipe in 8R40 is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter in the solution-annealed and white-pickled condition or in the bright-annealed condition.
The tubes are delivered in heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended:
850-950°C (1560-1740°F), 10- 15 minutes, cooling in air.
1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), 5-20 minutes, rapid cooling in air or water.
For tube and pipe with wall thicknesses greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by about 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).
At 20°C (68°F)
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness Vickers|
1 MPa = N/mm2
1) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
2) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sandvik 8R40 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.
Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements (60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF)) according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) and EN 10216-5.
At high temperatures
|Temperature||10 000 h||100 000 h|
Density: 7.9 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
|Temperature, °C||W/m °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/ft h °F|
|Temperature, °C||J/kg °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/lb °F|
|Temperature, °C||Per °C||
1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
|Temperature, °C||MPa||Temperature, °F||ksi|
The weldability of Sandvik 8R40 is good. Welding must be carried out without preheating and subsequent heat treatment is normally not required. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
For Sandvik 8R40, heat input of <1.5 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.
Recommended filler metals
TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding
ISO 14343 S 19 9 Nb / AWS A5.9 ER347 (e.g. Exaton 19.9.Nb) or
ISO 14343 S 19 9 Nb Si / AWS A5.9 ER347Si (e.g. Exaton 19.9.NbSi)
ISO 3581 E 19 9 Nb R / AWS A5.4 E347-17 (e.g. Exaton 19.9.NbR )
ISO 14343 S 19 9 Nb / AWS A5.9 ER347 (e.g. Exaton 19.9.LNb) wire or strip electrodes are recommended for overlay welding of tube sheets and high-pressure vessels in cases where corrosion resistance, equal to that of Sandvik 8R40, is required.