Sanmac® 4435 is a molybdenum-alloyed austenitic chromium-nickel steel with improved machinability, with a guaranteed minimum molybdenum level of 2.5%.
ASTM: MT 316L, MT 316
UNS: S31603, S31600
EN Number: 1.4435, 1.4436
EN Name: X2CrNiMo18-14-3, X3CrNiMo17-13-3
- EN 10216-5*, EN 10297-2
- ASTM A511
- JIS G3446
* The leakage test is deferred to the finished component
JIS Approval No. SE9402 for Stainless Steel Tubes
Chemical composition (nominal) %
Sanmac® 4435 is used in a wide range of industrial applications where steels of type ASTM 304/304L have insufficient corrosion resistance. Typical applications are :
- Machines parts for tube and pipe fittings
- Components for valves, pumps, heat exchangers and vessels
- Different tubular shafts in chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper and power industries as well as in the production of pharmaceuticals, foods and beverages
Sandvik Sanmac® 4435 has good resistance to:
- Organic acids at high concentrations and temperatures, with the exception of formic acid and acids with corrosive contaminants
- Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric acid, at moderate concentrations and temperatures, and sulfuric acid below 20% at moderate temperatures. The steel can also be used in sulfuric acid of concentrations above 90% at low temperature.
- E.g. sulfates, sulfides and sulfites
- Caustic environments
Sandvik Sanmac® 4435 has a low carbon content and therefore better resistance to intergranular corrosion than other steels of type ASTM 316.
Pitting and crevice corrosion
Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with molybdenum content. Sandvik 4435, containing approximately 2.6% molybdenum, has substantially higher resistance to attack than steels of type AISI 304 and also better resistance than ordinary ASTM 316/316L steels with 2.1% molybdenum.
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F) if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, the austenitic-ferritic steels Sandvik SAF 2304®, Sandvik 10RE51 or Sandvik Sanmac® SAF 2205 have higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than 4435.
Sandvik Sanmac 4435 can be used in:
- Air up to 850°C (1560°)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range .In flue gases containing sulphur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments Sanmac® 4435 can be used at temperatures up to 600-750°C (1110-1380°F) depending on service conditions.
Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.
Forms of supply
Hollow bar-Finishes, dimensions and tolerances
Hollow bar Sanmac® 4435 is stocked in a large number of sizes up to 250 mm outside diameter in the solution-annealed and white-pickled condition. See catalogue S-110-ENG, S-029-ENG or S-02909-ENG.
Dimensions are given as outside and inside diameter with guaranteed component sizes after machining for OD<2.5 x OD.
Outside diameter +2 / -0 %, but minimum +1 / -0 mm
Inside diameter +0 / -2 %, but minimum +0 / -1 mm
Better tolerances can be supplied to special order.
Other forms of supply
Steel with improved machinability, Sanmac®, is also available in round bar and billet.
Hollow bar is delivered in heat treated condition.
If further heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended:
1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), rapid cooling in air or water.
For hollow bar with wall thickness greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by approximately 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).
At 20°C (68°F)
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 ÖS0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
Due to its austenitic micro structure, Sandvik Sanmac® 4435 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.
Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) ( (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -270 oC (-455 oF) and EN 10216-5 (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF).
Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
|Temperature, °C||W/m °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/ft h °F|
|Temperature, °C||J/kg °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/lb °F|
|Temperature, °C||Per °C||Temperature, °F||Per °F|
|Temperature, °C||MPa||Temperature, °F||ksi|
The weldability of Sanmac® 4435 is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
Due to this material is alloyed in such a way that it shall have good machinability there can be a higher amount of surface oxides on the welded beads compared to standard 316L steels. This may lead to arc instability during TIG/GTAW welding, especially welding without filer material. However, the welding behavior of this material is the same as for standard 316L steels when welding with filler material.
For Sanmac® 4435, heat input of <2.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are normally not necessary.
Recommended filler metals
TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding
ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L)
ISO 3581 E 19 12 3 L R / AWS A5.4 E316L-17(e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.LR)