Sandvik 2C48 is a ferritic, heat resisting, stainless chromium steel, characterized by:
- Good resistance to reducing sulphurous gases
- Very good resistance to oxidation in air
- good resistance to oil-ash corrosion
- Resistance to molten copper, lead and tin
This steel can be used at temperatures up to 1075°C (1970°F). However, allowance should be made for the low creep strength at the highest temperatures in order to avoid distortion due to the mass of the steel.
- ASTM: 446-2
- UNS: S44600
- ASTM A268
Chemical composition (nominal) %
Forms of supply
Seamless tube and pipe in Sandvik 2C48 is supplied in dimensions up to 120 mm outside diameter in the annealed condition, but is also available white-pickled after annealing.
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness|
1) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
2) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0, where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-sectional area.
The creep strength for Sandvik 2C48 is slightly inferior to that of Sandvik 4C54 (ASTM TP446-1).
Density: 7.6 g/cm3, 0.27 lb/in3
1) Mean values in temperature ranges x10-6
1) x 103
Sandvik 2C48 is highly resistant to oxidation, both at constant and at cyclically varying temperatures. The service temperature in air should not exceed about 1075°C (1970°F).
Hot corrosion / sulphidation
Owing to its high chromium content and the absence of nickel, Sandvik 2C48 has very good resistance in sulphidizing gases and salts. The steel has relatively good resistance to slags containing vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphate, for example, which are extremely aggressive at temperatures above 600°C (1110°F).
Nitrogen pick-up can occur in gas mixtures with low oxygen concentrations and high concentrations of nitrogen, cracked ammonia or mixtures of nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen pick-up leads to embrittlement and reduced oxidation resistance. Sandvik 2C48 is more sensitive than austenitic steels in environments where nitrogen pick-up can occur.
When a material comes into contact with hot gases containing hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, carburization can occur. The extent of carburization depends on the composition of the material and of the gas.
The relatively high chromium content of Sandvik 2C48 promotes the formation of a protective oxide layer on the surface of the material, providing some protection against carburization.
However, because Sandvik 2C48 is ferritic, carburization occurs quickly, if the oxide layer cracks or if the oxygen content is too low to form a protective oxide layer. For this reason, the material does not possess the same resistance as the austenitic steels, for example, Sandvik 253 MA* or Sanicro 31HT.
Metal and salt baths
The ferritic structure of Sandvik 2C48 gives it good resistance in baths of molten copper. It also possesses good resistance in other molten metals, such as lead, tin, bearing metals, brass and magnesium. In these metals, it is a good idea to use replaceable sleeves of ceramic material or graphite, since corrosion is heaviest at the surface of the metal bath. In salt baths for heat treatment etc., such as cyanide baths and neutral salt baths, austenitic alloys with a high nickel content should be chosen instead (e.g. Sanicro 31HT).
* 253 MA is a trademark owned by Outokumpu OY.
Temperatures of about 400–550°C (750–1020°F) should be avoided for even short periods of time, whether the steel is in service or merely being held at that temperature, since severe embrittlement, known as 475 deg. embrittlement, can take place. This is noticeable after the tubes have cooled to room temperature. However, the steel can be restored to its original condition by short term heating at a temperature above 600°C (1110°F).
Embrittlement can also occur as a result of sigma phase formation after prolonged service at 550–750°C (1020–1380°F). The sigma phase can be redissolved after a heat treatment above 900°C (1650°F).
Tubes are delivered in the heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended:
800–850°C (1470–1560°F), 15–30 minutes, rapid cooling in air.
800–900°C (1470–1650°F), 30–60 minutes, rapid cooling in air.
The weldability of Sandvik 2C48 is good. Welding must be carried out with preheating at 200-300°C (390-570°F), subsequent heat treatment is not required where Sandvik 2C48 is used in structures that operate for prolonged periods at high temperature. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.
For Sandvik 2C48, heat-input of <1.5 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.
Recommended filler metals
ISO 14343 S 29 9/AWS A5.9 ER312 (e.g. Exaton 29.9) or
ISO 14343 S 25 20/AWS A5.9 ER310 (e.g. Exaton 25.20.C) or
ISO 18274 S Ni 6082/AWS A5.14 ERNiCr-3 (e.g. Exaton Sanicro 72 HP)
ISO 3581 E 29 9 R/AWS A5.4 E312-16 (e.g. Exaton 29.9.R) or
ISO 3581 E 25 20 B/AWS A5.4 E310-16 (e.g. Exaton 25.20.B) or
ISO 14172 E Ni 6182/AWS A5.11 ENiCrFe-3 (e.g. Exaton Sanicro 71)
When using the austenitic stainless-steel wire electrode S 25 20/ER310 and the covered electrode E 25 20 B/E310-16, the higher thermal expansion of the austenitic weld metal must be considered.
When using nickel alloy wire electrode S Ni 6082/ERNiCr-3 and covered electrode E Ni 6182/ENiCrFe-3, however, allowance must be made for lower corrosion resistance of the steel welded joint in a reducing sulphurous atmosphere.
Generally Sandvik 2C48 has improved bending properties, compared with ASTM TP446-1.
When Sandvik 2C48 tubes are to be bent cold, we recommend the use of cold-worked tubes. Annealing is not normally necessary after cold bending.
Hot-worked tubes should preferably be bent hot, but they can be bent cold, if the bending radius is greater than 5 times the diameter.
Hot bending is carried out at 1000–800°C (1830–1470°F) and should be followed by annealing, if necessary for reasons of design.
Typical applications for Sandvik 2C48 are:
- Recuperators in the metallurgical and glass industries
- Thermocouple protection tubes
- Cable tubing
- Sootblower tubes
- Injection nozzles