Sandvik 8R40 is an austenitic, niobium-stabilized stainless chromium-nickel steel for use at temperatures up to 850°C (1560°F).
- ASTM: TP347, TP347H
- UNS: S34700, S34709
- EN Number: 1.4550, 1.4912
- EN Name: X6CrNiNb18-10, X7CrNiNb18-10
- W.Nr.: 1.4550
- DIN: X 6 CrNiNb 18 10
- SS: 2338
- AFNOR: (Z6CNNb 18.10)
- BS: 347S31, 347S51
Seamless tube and pipe:
- ASTM A213, A269, A312, A376
- EN 10216-5
- BS 3059 Part 2, BS 3605 Part 1, BS 3606
- DIN 17456,17458
- SS 14 23 38
Chemical composition (nominal) %
Forms of supply
Seamless tube and pipe - Finishes and dimensions
Seamless tube and pipe in 8R40 is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter in the solution-annealed and white-pickled condition or in the bright-annealed condition.
Other forms of supply
- Wire electrodes and filler wire/rods
- Covered electrodes
For tube and pipe with wall thicknesses greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by about 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).
At 20°C (68°F)
|Proof strength||Tensile strength||Elong.||Hardness Vickers|
1 MPa = N/mm2
1) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
2) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sandvik 8R40 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.
Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements (60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF)) according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) and EN 10216-5.
At high temperatures
|Temperature||10 000 h||100 000 h|
Density: 7.9 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3
|Temperature, °C||W/m °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/ft h °F|
|Temperature, °C||J/kg °C||Temperature, °F||Btu/lb °F|
|Temperature, °C||Per °C||
1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
|Temperature, °C||MPa||Temperature, °F||ksi|
Sandvik 8R40 has with some limitations (nitric acid) the same resistance as the unstabilised steel ASTM 304, i.e. the material has good resistance in:
- Organic acids at moderate temperatures
- Salt solutions, e.g. sulphates, sulphides and sulphites
- Caustic environments at moderate temperatures
Sandvik 8R40 is generally used at temperatures above 500 °C (930 °F), however, where wet corrosion is not relevant.
The stabilisation with niobium gives Sandvik 8R40 good resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Pitting and crevice corrosion
The steel may be sensitive to pitting and crevice corrosion even in solutions of relatively low chloride content.
Stress corrosion cracking
Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F), if the steel is subject to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. Such service conditions should therefore be avoided. Conditions when plants are shut down must also be considered as the condensates which are then formed can develop a chloride content that leads to both stress corrosion cracking and pitting.
Sandvik 8R40 can be used in
- Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
- Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)
- Synthesis gas (ammonia synthesis) up to about 550°C (1020°F)
Creep behaviour should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range.
In flue gases containing sulphur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments this steel can be used at temperatures up to 600-750°C (1110-1380°F) depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidising or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.
The tubes are delivered in heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended:
850-950°C (1560-1740°F), 10- 15 minutes, cooling in air.
1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), 5-20 minutes, rapid cooling in air or water.
The weldability of Sandvik 8R40 is good. Suitable welding methods are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes and gas shielded arc welding with the TIG and MIG methods as first choice. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are not normally necessary.
Since the material has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion, welding must be carried out with a low heat input and with welding plans well thought out in advance so that the deformation of the welded joint can be kept under control. If, despite these precautions, it is foreseen that the residual stresses might impair the function of the weldment, we recommend that the entire structure be stress-relieved. See under "Heat treatment".
As filler material for gas-shielded arc welding we recommend wire electrodes and rods Sandvik 19.9.NbSi or 19.9.Nb. In manual metal-arc welding covered electrodes Sandvik 19.9.NbR are recommended. Flux-cored electrode Sandvik 19.9.NbT can also be used.
Annealing after cold bending is not normally necessary, but this point must be decided with regard to the degree of bending and the operating conditions. Heat treatment, if any, should take the form of slress-relieving or solution annealing, see under "Heat treatment".
Hot bending is carried out at 1100-850°C (2010-1560°F) and should be followed by solution annealing.
Sandvik 8R40 is used for superheater-tubes in steam powerplants.
It is also frequently used for cooling tubes in ammonia converters, because of its good resistance to nitrogen absorption and good corrosion resistance.
With its good hot-strength, and good resistance to hydrogen sulphide and intergranular corrosion, Sandvik 8R40 is a suitable material for furnace tubes in refineries. Furnace tubing used in vinyl chloride production is another example of applications in which this steel is often used.